• Quotation marks are subject to certain rules and regulations. • In academic writing, improper use of quotation marks can lead to inconsistencies and partial plagiarism. • Writing academic papers that are consistent and accurate requires knowing the rules regarding quotations.

When to use quotation marks?

There are three examples in academic writing: • for emphasisWhen scare quotes are used to highlight a bizarre or arguably incorrect use of words, they are known as scare quotes.As well as to quote someone else.

Used for emphasis:

For emphasis, most journals suggest authors use italics or boldface instead of quotation marks. Using quotation marks emphatically may clash with using them when quoting somebody or using scare quotes.

Example of Quotation marks for emphasis:

COVID-19 swiftly transformed into a worldwide epidemic, which is called a “pandemic.”

Used as scare quotes:

Using scare quotes can clarify that the author does not personally endorse the idea. Writing in this tone is covertly informal, but it can also be used sparingly in academic writing.

Scare quotes are more prevalent in papers from the Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences than STEM.

Example of scare quotes

Although considered “the weaker sex,” female athletes have been bringing home a plethora of medals.

Used to quote others:

It is used to denote a quote derived from a different source to support an argument. Most ideas borrowed from other scholars are referenced within an academic text.

Examples of quote in quotes:

As Aristotle’s Poetics states, “With respect to the requirement of art, the probable impossible is always preferable to the improbable possible.” Whereas dramatists like Ben Jonson is of the view that to “judge of poets is only the faculty of poets; and not of all poets, but the best”.

Quotations in American English

• A double quotation mark ("...") is used for quoted text, and a single quotation mark ('...') is used to highlight quotes within quotes. • A closing quotation is enclosed by a period and a comma. • A closing quotation is used if the sentence ends with a punctuation mark.

Quotations in British English

• For quoted text ('...'), single quotation marks are used, and double quotation marks ("...") are used for quotes within quotes. • Punctuation marks are always placed outside the closing quotation.

Example of American English

The country is considered “underdeveloped.” According to Tom, it is but ‘natural’ to behave this way.” “You’re a wizard, Harry”!

Example of British English

The country is considered ‘under-developed’. ‘According to Tom, it is but “natural” to behave this way’. ‘You’re a wizard, Harry’!