Academic Phrases to Use in Different Scenarios (Part 3 of 3)

In the final installment of our three-part series (Part 1 and Part 2), we will deal with phrases used to compare outcomes and those used to cite work by other authors.

  1. Comparison to Previous Outcomes

One of the aims of the Discussion section in research articles is to compare the writer’s own outcomes with those of other researchers. Similar outcomes can help support the writer’s claims, whereas different (unpredicted) findings need explanation. The following adjectives and verbs are generally used to show these two types of outcomes:

 (A) Similar outcomes

One way to demonstrate the validity of one’s outcomes or claims is to gain support from similar outcomes found by other researchers.

Adjectives

The outcomes are [consistent with] those [reported] previously for [SAMPLE] by [RESEARCHER].

  • [consistent with]: similar to, in agreement with, in accord with, in line with, comparable to, compatible with, equivalent to, identical to, lower than

Verbs

This value [agrees with] that [observed] in [SAMPLE] for [RESEARCHER].

This value [agrees with] that [observed] for [AREA] by [RESEARCHER].

  • [agrees with]: coincides with, conforms with, corresponds to, accords with, concurs with, compares favorably with
  • [observed]: found, noted, seen

These data [corroborate] the findings of [RESEARCHER].

  • [corroborate]: support, match, parallel, confirm, substantiate, strengthen, validate, verify

Other Examples

  • Many researchers have reported similar… (Nash, 1989).
  • Similar outcomes have been reported by Nash (1989), who…
  • Support for this view has come from studies of… (Nash, 1989).

 (B) Different outcomes

The work of other researchers can also be cited to contrast it with one’s own outcomes. In this case, it is generally considered necessary to provide a reason for this disparity.

 Adjectives

This value is [contrary to/in contrast to] that [reported] earlier for [SAMPLE] by [RESEARCHER].

Verbs

This value [differs from/contrasts with/conflicts with/contradicts] that [presented/established] earlier for [SAMPLE] by [RESEARCHER].

  1. Citing Other Work

Numerous options are available to the writer in terms of (1) the form of the reference given to the author as well as (2) its position within the sentence.

(A) Form of Citation

The form of citation can be either “integral” or “non-integral.” An integral citation is one in which the researcher’s name appears in the actual citing sentence as a grammatical element of the sentence; in a non-integral citation, the researcher’s name appears in parenthesis or the research is referred to elsewhere by a number. Any of the following forms could be used to report the author’s original claim, depending upon your rhetorical intention.

Integral Citation

  1. Rees & Mészáros (2005) suggested that the nonthermal emission, which is superposed on the thermal Compton spectrum, is caused by synchrotron shock emission.
  1. These lines were found by Smith et al. (2005), and their outcomes show that there is axial symmetry about the NC bond with hyperfine constants.

Non-Integral Citation

  1. The nonthermal emission, which is superposed on the thermal Compton spectrum, is due to synchrotron shock emission (Rees & Mészáros, 2005).
  2. In an earlier study, such nonthermal emission was found to be caused by synchrotron shock emission (Rees & Mészáros, 2005).
  3. Earlier research shows that there is an axial symmetry about the NC bond with hyperfine constants (Smith et al., 2005).

(B) Location in the Sentence

In integral citations, the researcher’s name occurs as a part of the actual text; it can be placed either at the start or the end of the sentence.

Sentence—Initial or Medial Position

  1.  Nash (2005) has reported that…
  2. In a study of partridge by Nash (2005), it was found that…
  3. As was also shown by Nash (2005), our outcomes indicated that…
  4. According to Nash (2005),…

Sentence—Final Position

  1. …has been reported by Smith (2005).
  1. …., as previously reported by Smith (2005).a

We hope our three-part series on academic phrases provided you with practical information. Please share your views and questions with us in the comments section below.

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