Components of a Sentence

Just as a sentence comprises two parts, it encompasses five main components that contribute to its structure:

1. Subject
2. Verb
3. Object
4. Complement
5. Adjunct

Now, let’s explore each of these components in detail.

1) Subject: A noun that carries out the action in a sentence is considered the subject. It answers the question ‘who’ and typically takes precedence, especially in declarative or assertive sentences.

For example:

• The birds are singing outside my window.
• A diligent student always completes assignments on time.
• The diligent student always completes assignments on time.
• Someone left an umbrella in the hallway.

2) Verb: The most crucial word in any sentence is the verb, as it signifies the action, activity, or work performed by the subject. Verbs, encompassing main verbs, helping verbs, stative verbs, and action verbs, generally follow the subject.

For example:

• The chef is preparing a delicious meal.
• The rain poured down in heavy sheets.
• She has completed her assignment ahead of schedule.
• The athletes were sprinting towards the finish line.

3) Object: An object, either a noun or pronoun, receives the action executed by the subject. Objects come in two types: Direct Object and Indirect Object.

   i: Direct Object: A noun or pronoun directly affected by the action is the direct object in the sentence. It answers the question ‘what’ and typically follows the verb.

For example:

• Sarah painted a vibrant mural on the wall.
• The gardener planted a row of colorful tulips in the garden.
• I read an intriguing mystery novel last night.
• They built a sturdy wooden bridge across the river.

  ii: Indirect Object: An indirect object, a secondary object, is identified by asking ‘whom.’ When present, it usually follows the verb and precedes the direct object.

For example:

• The teacher assigned the students an interesting project.
• My grandmother baked my brother and me delicious cookies.
• The company promised the team members exciting opportunities.
• The chef served the guests a delightful three-course meal.

4) Adjunct: An adjunct, whether a word or phrase, furnishes more information about an action, event, quality, etc. Essentially, adjuncts include adverbs and adverb clauses. They can be positioned at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence, and more than one adjunct can be used.

For example:

• During the weekend, they celebrated a family reunion.
• The team practiced diligently in the early morning.
• With determination, he overcame every obstacle.
• The children played happily in the park after school.
• In the conference room, the executives discussed the new strategy.

5) Complement: The words needed to complete the sentence’s meaning constitute the complement. Complements can be adjectives, names, positions, or professions.

For example:

• The coffee smells aromatic.
• The cake tastes delicious.
• The flowers in the garden look vibrant.
• His efforts proved successful.

Complements are further categorized into Subject Complement and Object Complement.

1) Subject Complement: Expressing the quality, identity, or condition of the subject, the subject complement provides additional information about the subject.

For example:

• The landscape seems breathtaking.
• The idea sounds intriguing.
• The cat appeared content
• The job remains challenging

2) Object Complement: Expressing the quality, identity, or condition of an object, the object complement provides additional information about the object.

For example:
• They deemed the project a success.
• She considered the proposal too ambitious.
• We painted the room a soothing blue.
• They declared the idea brilliant.